Corn School: How long does it take to add 1 percent soil organic matter?

You’ve just finished combining a corn field and you want to know how much organic matter all that corn residue will contribute to your soil.

RealAgriculture’s agronomist Peter Johnson tackles that question on our latest Corn School episode.

Unfortunately, as Johnson explains, all those stalks and cobs won’t have much of an impact.

When it comes to soil organic matter levels, Johnson explains that more is always better. Sand soils are typically in the 2% soil organic matter range, but higher is better; silt loam should be at 3.5% or 4%; and clay loam should be 4.5% to 5%.

Increasing field organic matter from 3% to 4% shouldn’t be that difficult, right? Unfortunately, it can take a lifetime to move the needle 1%. While standing in a freshly combined cornfield, Johnson explains that corn residue — depending on yield and other factors — could contribute 12,000 to 15,000 lb of residue to the soil. However, it takes 100,000 lb of crop organic matter to increase overall soil organic matter by 1%. Johnson adds that grain and oilseed crops typically remove the equivalent of 9,000 lb from the soil, so corn residue is barely enough to cover that loss.

Johnson also explains that soybeans contribute very little crop residue — so after corn followed by soybeans in the rotation, the field is actually in a residue deficit, and overall organic matter declines.

That’s why it’s so important to have other crops like wheat in the rotation.

So how long does it take to add 1%? “If you go to a corn/soy/wheat rotation, and you get your yields high enough, it takes 81 years to build one percent organic matter,” says Johnson. He notes that this window can be shortened with the addition of cover crops or a commitment to continuous alfalfa.

Click here for more Corn School episodes.

 

 

 

Bernard Tobin

Bernard Tobin is Real Agriculture's Ontario Field Editor. AgBern was raised on a dairy farm near St. John's, Newfoundland. For the past two decades, he has specialized in agricultural communications. A Ryerson University journalism grad, he kicked off his career with a seven-year stint as Managing Editor and Field Editor for Farm and Country magazine. He has received six Canadian Farm Writers' Federation awards for journalism excellence. He's also worked for two of Canada's leading agricultural communications firms, providing public relations, branding and strategic marketing. Bern also works for Guelph-based Synthesis Agri-Food Network and talks the Real Dirt on Farming.

Trending

Five more CWRS varieties to be moved to new wheat class due to lower gluten strength

The Canadian Grain Commission has announced it is moving five more Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) wheat varieties to the new Canada Northern Hard Red (CNHR) wheat class due to these varieties not meeting gluten requirements for Western Canada's flagship CWRS class. After hearing concerns about gluten strength from customers, the Grain Commission tightened the…Read more »

Related

3 Comments

Shawn McRae

Sorry Pete. I think it’s kind of silly to have that discussion without mentioning tillage methods and frequencies, coupled with specifics regarding nitrogen fertilization practices. Certainly continuous alfalfa builds wonderful roots, but if it’s the best way to build soil organic matter, the reason has much more to do with the tillage and nitrogen fertilizer abstinence that attends it.

Reply
Richard Barrett

Great article. If any farmer really wants to know how to increase his farm’s organic matter, please google two names on you tube: Gabe Brown (North Dakota) and Ray Archuleta. Gabe’s organic matter is over 6. His Brix levels of his crops is high too. What is your’s? Test.

Reply
Brent Difley

There will be a lot of discussion about using forages and the benefits of nutrient recycling from livestock to build soil organic matter this week at the sold out Grazing and Soil Health Conference in Edmonton.

Reply

Leave a Reply